Throughout your written work at Shannon College of Hotel Management, you will need to refer to material that has been produced or written by others to support your discussions. This is called citing and referencing and is a key part of academic writing and research. In your writing you must acknowledge any sources that you use within your writing with an in-text citation and include a corresponding entry in the Reference List at the end of your written work.
There are various referencing styles that provide a system for formatting in-text citations and the Reference List. At Shannon College, Cite Them Right's Harvard referencing style is used.
It is important to cite and reference properly to avoid plagiarism. If you don't reference sources that you have used in your written work, this is plagiarism as you are passing off another author's ideas as your own. Citing and referencing allow your reader to trace the provenance of your arguments and find and read your source materials if they wish to. Proper citing and referencing also demonstrate to your lecturer that you understand academic writing conventions.
There are different ways in which plagiarism can occur and it is important to be aware of what these are in order to avoid plagiarism and uphold your academic integrity. Below outlines some ways of conceptualizing the different types of plagiarism:
For more information, see Turnitin's Plagiarism Spectrum.
Below are referencing guides that provide further details on how to reference sources throughout your written work. Each guide covers the Cite Them Right Harvard referencing style, you can choose to use each of them or you can stick to the one that works best for you.
An ebook of the Cite Them Right referencing guide is available through the library catalogue:
The Cite Them Right guide includes various referencing styles. See the following relevant sections for citing and referencing in your assignments at Shannon College:
This quick guide provides referencing examples of some of the more frequent types of sources used. As this list is not exhaustive of all types of sources, if a type of source you are looking for is not included below have a look at either the Interactive Guide or Cite Them Right ebook above.
Citing and referencing has two components: the in-text citation at the point in your work where you have used the source and then the full reference for the source in your Reference List at the end of your paper.
People write online reviews for a variety of reasons, including the desire to share a positive event, and it is not true that it is only those who want to complain who do so (O'Connor, 2020).
O'Connor (2020) argues that there are a variety of reasons why people write online reviews and that reviews are not just inspired by the desire to complain.
Direct Quotation Examples
"Whilst it is easy to imagine the relationship between job satisfaction and labour turnover, the relationship between job satisfaction and commitment is more complex" (Riley, 2019, p.53).
Riley (2019, p. 53) states, "Whilst it is easy to imagine the relationship between job satisfaction and labour turnover, the relationship between job satisfaction and commitment is more complex".
Hayes, J. (2018) The theory and practice of change management. 5th edn. London: Palgrave.
Bright, S., Cortes, A., Hartmann, E., Parboteeah, K.P., Pierce, J., Reece, M., Shah, A., Terjesen, S., Weiss, J., White, M., Gardner, D., Lambert, J., Leduc, L., Leopold, J., Muldoon, J. and O’Rourke, J. (2019) Principles of management. Available at: https://openstax.org/details/books/principles-management (Accessed: 6 July 2023).
Chapter of an edited book
Ben Tahar, Y., Haller, C., Massa, C. and Bédé (2018) 'Designing and creating tourism experiences: adding value for tourists', in M. Sotiriadis (ed.) The Emerald handbook of entrepreneurship in tourism, travel and hospitality. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 313-328.
Buhalis, D. and Leung, R. (2018) 'Smart hospitality—Interconnectivity and interoperability towards an ecosystem', International Journal of Hospitality Management, 71, pp. 41-50. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.11.011
Kotter, J. (2007) 'Leading change: why transformation efforts fail', Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2007/01/leading-change-why-transformation-efforts-fail (Accessed: 4 July 2023).
Paul, M. (2022) 'A top tip for hospitality employers: treat your staff as well as you can', The Irish Times, 21 January. Available at: https://www.irishtimes.com/business/economy/a-top-tip-for-hospitality-employers-treat-your-staff-as-well-as-you-can-1.4781605 (Accessed: 5 July 2023).
Crowe Ireland (2023) Using share schemes to attract and retain employees. Available at: https://www.crowe.com/ie/insights/using-share-schemes-to-attract-and-retain-employees (Accessed: 4 July 2023).
Reports and documents found on websites
World Tourism Organization (2022) Baseline report on climate action in tourism. Available at: https://doi.org/10.18111/9789284423965
RSA Animate (2010) Drive: the surprising truth about what motivates us. 1 April. Available at: https://youtu.be/u6XAPnuFjJc (Accessed: 6 July 2023).
Social media posts
Prosser, D. (2021) 'If we are training AI on available digitised material then it will learn from Victorian men - with all of their C19th attitudes!' [Twitter] 10 May. Available at: https://twitter.com/RLUK_David/status/1391686254731960321 (Accessed: 6 July 2023).
Reference List Order
Author's Referring to Other Authors (Secondary Referencing)
When you are reading a source where an author is referring to another author, it is important to consider how to use the information and how to reference it. Consider the following first:
If the options above are not possible and the information is essential, you can reference as follows:
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