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Persistent Identifiers

A persistent identifier (PI or PID) is a long-lasting reference to a document, file, web page, or other digital object. It is linked to the current address of the metadata or content. Unlike URLs, PIDs are often provided by services that allow you to update the location of the object so that the identifier consistently points to the right place without breaking. Persistent identifiers are available for people (e.g. ORCIDs), institutions (e.g. ROR), research outputs (e.g. DOI).

Publishing services provided by the library include DOIs for research outputs, ISBNs for books, the ARAN platform for Green Open Access publishing, Pressbooks platform for Open Educational Resources publishing tools,  publishing deals for journal articles, information about ORCIDs.

For more information and to request a DOI or ISBN please contact Trish Finnan, Digital Publishing and Data Management Librarian,
Email:, Phone: 00 353 91 495961

The library is part of the Irish DataCite Consortium which is managed by IReL. The consortium subscribes to DataCite's services. Hence the library can create or ‘mint’ DOIs for research outputs, thus ensuring that they are discoverable, citable, and connected. DOIs are registered with the International DOI Foundation (IDF) and a permanent link is established. If the item is moved to a new location the DOI metadata must be updated.

IReL is a consortium of Irish research libraries, providing access to licensed e-resources, OA publishing agreements and open science infrastructure.

The International DOI Foundation (IDF) governs DOIs and regulates them to an ISO standard. Registration agencies like DataCite and CrossRef make up the foundation and provide the structure supporting DOIs. See also the DOI® Handbook.

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (e.g. DataCite) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. It is used to give a digital object a unique designation. DOIs identify content permanently. They are coupled with metadata and can be modified over time to keep track of the locations and characteristics of the objects they identify. They facilitate accurate attribution and bibliometrics tracking. They are assigned by authorized agencies or institutions and their use indicates that the associated object is well managed and accessible for long-term use.

Persistent Identifiers

“Identifier” = a string of digits referring to an object

“Unique” = only refer to one object

“Universal” = are valid for the whole of the world (or world wide web)

“Persistent” = shall remain available independent of individual institutions or systems

“Actionable” = an URL that resolves to a landing page with metadata information

“Interoperable” = integrate with other systems

The following information is required to create a DOI

  • Location (URL) for the landing page that the DOI will resolve to when a user clicks on the DOI
  • Creator
  • Title
  • Publisher
  • Publication Year
  • Resource Type

DataCite specify the following guidelines for landing pages

  • DOIs should resolve to a landing page containing metadata about the item
  • DOIs should not resolve directly to content
  • The landing page should contain a full bibliographic citation
  • The DOI should be displayed on the landing page (so humans can read it)
  • The DOI should be appropriately tagged (so that machines can read it)
  • The landing page should provide a way to access the item

In order to adhere to DataCite’s guidelines articles held on departmental websites must be deposited into ARAN, the Institutional Repository where the appropriate metadata can be collected and the DOI resolves to its record on ARAN.

DataCite specifies the following guideline for displaying DOIs

DOIs should be displayed as a full clickable URL of the form:

For more information and to request a DOI or ISBN please contact Trish Finnan, Digital Publishing and Data Management Librarian,
Email:, Phone: 00 353 91 495961

Grant IDs are DOIs provided by Crossref to enable funders to register grants and related metadata.

An ORCID iD is a unique and persistent digital identifier for a person, owned and controlled by the person. It distinguishes them from every other researcher.

  • Links researchers with their professional activities
  • Eliminates name ambiguity
  • Ensures proper attribution
  • Ensures work is discoverable and connected to the correct person
  • Reduces time spent entering repetitive data online

Many publishers, funders and universities work with ORCID id to integrate their systems.

The Library Guide on Managing your Research Profile includes guidance about ORCID iD identifiers for researchers.

The Research Organization Registry (ROR) is a community-led registry of open, sustainable, usable, and unique identifiers for every research organization in the world. The PID (Permanent Identifier) for Ollscoil na Gaillimhe – University of Galway is

Learn more about ROR

For more information and to request a DOI or ISBN please contact Trish Finnan, Digital Publishing and Data Management Librarian,
Email:, Phone: 00 353 91 495961