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Starting your research at the University of Galway Library


Handy tip: Manage your references and use reference management software from the beginning.

For more information and tutorials on referencing see the library guide: Citing & Referencing


Reference Management Software

One of the key challenges of managing your references, is keeping track of them all in an orderly way. Thankfully, there are software tools available to assist with collating and managing references effectively. Many of these products will also help to format your references as you are writing.

Click on the appropriate tab to find out more about the software that is of interest to you.

Juris-M Reference Management Software for Law


Juris-M iis designed to create legal and multilingual citations. It is based on Zotero.

For more information see this library guide from the University of Sussex


See also this pdf  guide to using OSCOLA and Juris-M from OSCOLA Ireland (

Popular citation styles

The basic principles of referencing stay the same no matter what discipline you are writing within -- you must acknowledge your sources. What can and does change is the style of the references (or citations), that is, the way that your sources are presented. 

Click the tab that corresponds to the referencing style that you are using or want to find out more about. Different disciplines use different citation styles and most Schools have a preferred style.  Check with your School or consult your course handbook if you aren’t sure which style to use.


See also the Styles & Style guides section of the Citing & Referencing library guide which also includes referencing guidelines for specific disciplines:

Harvard is a very popular style, used in cases across the sciences, social sciences and business. Harvard formatting can actually vary, which can be confusing. Check with your instructor for specific requirements, and remember to be consistent with your formatting throughout your document.

Below are some links to some useful Harvard referencing resources.

Used in the languages and humanities.

Used in psychology, as well as widely across the social sciences, including sociology and economics.

ACS style is often used by Chemistry researchers. Chapter 14 of their style guide is about referencing.

IEEE is used widely by researchers in Engineering.

Used in the humanities, social sciences and elsewhere.

Published by the Faculty of Law at Oxford University, now on its 4th edition.

The MHRA style guide is used in the humanities.

Citation guidelines for Current Opinion in Cell Biology can be found in the journal's Author information pack (linked as a pdf), see page 10 for citation guidelines.



Citing & referencing library guide

This section of the library guide is from  the library guide: Citing & Referencing